AP biology FRQ
1 ) 22. 13
A). The chemical make up and structure of healthy proteins seems quite confusing to start with but one it is split up into amounts it is a lot more understandable. Proteins are the simple building blocks of proteins plus they contain amino, carboxyl and R teams. These L groups which can be in the amino acids are what determine the properties from the specific amino acids. For composition, there are some levels. The first one being the principal level. They are made up of sequences of amino acids and these types of amino acids will be linked jointly by peptide bonds. The next level is called secondary. This level is a creation of alanine chains folded together by a helix development or a pleated sheet. The bonds between them are hydrogen bonds and they are generally specifically between carboxyl and amino organizations. The third level is called tertiary and is created by a number of different bonds just like hydrogen, ionic, disulfide, van der waals, or hydrophobic reactions. These interactions take place between R groups. The fourth level is called quaternary in fact it is made up of more than one polypeptide. It truly is made up of precisely the same bonds which the tertiary level is because it really is several tertiary groups together. B). Three types oh chemical a genuine are covalent, hydrogen and ionic. Covalent bonds are bonds that share bad particals or link amino acids jointly. The rode they perform in deciding protein structure is linking amino acids to form the correct collection. Hydrogen you possess are reactions between hydrogen and oxygen or hydrogen and nitrogen and presently there role in determining proteins structure with the tertiary or quaternary levels. Lastly, ionic bonds happen to be formed by the bonding of charged R groups. These are generally also found inside the tertiary or perhaps quaternary levels. C). Lacks sysnthesis is when you have 2 amino acids and take off the They would from the amino and the Also from the carboxyl and connect them jointly to make normal water (H2O). You do this frequently until you get the...