Activity of Zeolite a

 Essay on Synthesis of Zeolite a

SYNTHESIS AND PORTRAYAL OF ZEOLITES FROM SALT

ALUMINOSILICATE REMEDY

by

SITI AIDA BINTI IBRAHIM

Thesis submitted in fulfillment from the

requirements to get the degree

of Master of Science

August 2007

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Thank you to Allah intended for His Benefit and offering me a great ability and strength to complete this thesis.

Firstly, I would like expressing my greatest gratitude to my boss Dr . Norlia Baharun for her expert direction, constant attention, valuable recommendations, enthusiastic support and personal concern during the research and throughout the course of my personal study. Her fruitful ideas throughout the research study has allowed me to accomplished this work successfully.

Special due to Dean of School of Material and Mineral Assets Engineering, Associate Professor Dr . Khairun Azizi Azizli for her permission to let me make use of all the brilliant facilities and equipment in completing my project.

Beneath her

management, she has created a healthy learning environment inside the school. I would also like to increase my honest appreciation for all your lecturers inside the school especially to Connect Professor Dr . Azizan Aziz for his support and guidance throughout my analyze. I would like to thank the technical ecuries of School of Materials and Mineral Solutions Engineering, specifically to Mdm. Fong Shelter Lee, Mister. Shaarani, Miss Mahani and Mr. Hasnor for their various contributions in a single way yet another.

To my own dear close friends,

Nurul'Ain, Norwanis, Roshazita, Faizul, Shahrizam,

Suhaina, Dr . Hasmaliza, Dr . Zuhailawati and all close members of postgraduate area of School of Materials and Mineral Methods Engineering, thanks to making my life in USM so colourful and enjoyable. The memory of our camaraderie will forever stay inside my cardiovascular.

ii

Previous, but not least to my family especially to my ever-loving mother who are always on my side, Hajjah Rinah Binti Mohd. Jirin, Thank you for the support and the confidence you gave me to pursue my dreams. Not to forget, my family members who have always be there to me through my thick and thin.

May possibly ALLAH bless all of us in support of HE, the Almighty could repay my debts to all of you.

Wassalamu'alaikum warahmatullah wabarakatuh.

iii

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Site

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

ii

TABLE OF CONTENTS

4

LIST OF FURNITURE

vii

SET OF FIGURES

ix

LIST OF CHINA

xi

SET OF SYMBOLS

xii

LIST OF DECREASE

xiii

LIST OF APPENDICES

xiv

LIST OF JOURNALS & SEMINARS

xiv

POKOK

iv

xvii

ABSTRACT

PHASE ONE: INTRO

1 . one particular

Background

1

1 . two

The importance of research

four

1 . a few

The targets of the analysis

5

1 ) 4

Opportunity of the study

6

CHAPTER TWO: MATERIALS REVIEW

installment payments on your 1

Introduction

8

2 . 2

Framework

9

installment payments on your 3

Real estate

15

installment payments on your 4

All-natural Occurrence of Zeolite

seventeen

2 . 5

Synthesis of Zeolite

19

2 . 6

Application

23

2 . 6. 1 Zeolite in Adsorption and Separation

23

installment payments on your 6. a couple of Zeolite in Ion Exchange

25

2 . 6. a few Zeolite in Catalysis

thirty-one

2 . 6. 4 Various other Application

thirty-three

2 . six

Comparison Between Natural and Synthetic Zeolite

34

installment payments on your 8

Sol-Gel Processing on Hydrothermal State

38

2 . 8. you General Description

38

iv

2 . almost eight. 2 App to Zeolite Synthesis

40

2 . almost 8. 3 Factors Affecting The Zeolite Synthesis

46

PHASE THREE: SUPPLIES AND FRESH WORK

3. 1

56

3. 1 ) 3 Anhydrous sodium aluminate

57

Test Preparation and Experimental Treatment

57

three or more. 2 . one particular Solution Preparation and Make up

58

3. 2 . a couple of Sequence of Mixing Order

sixty one

3. 2 . 3 Hydrothermal Treatment

sixty one

3. 2 . 4 Purification, Washing and Drying

63

Characterization in the Synthesized Zeolite

64

several. 3. you X-Ray Dispersion (XRD)

sixty four

3. 3. 2 Particle Size Analyzer

65

a few. 3. three or more Determination of Specific Area (BET)

sixty five

3. several. 4 Fourier Transformed Infra Red (FT-IR) Spectroscopy

66...

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